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Genes:人类机体调节有益菌群和有害菌群的分子机理

2019-03-11 12:24 17

  近日,发表于国际杂志Genes上的一篇研究论文中,来自悉尼麦觉理大学(Macquarie University)的科学家通过研究揭示了机体平衡有益细菌和有害细菌的分子机理。

  文章中研究者揭示了组成机体小型生物群落的微生物如何随着人类机体的进化而发生改变,尤其是在上个世纪发生的改变;Michael Gillings教授说道,我们的研究揭示了在上个世纪100年里机体生态系统和人类社会的改变如何影响机体中繁殖的微生物群落;生活在机体的微生物对机体健康非常重要,而且这些微生物还和多种人类疾病的发生有关,比如过敏性疾病、自身免疫疾病、甚至焦虑和抑郁等,而且微生物的改变和人类的生活方式密切相关。

  在产业革命之后随着加工食品使用量的增加、农业的创新性发明以及用火来做饭大大改变了机体微生物群落的特性。

  研究者指出,但最重要的影响因子或许是杀虫剂、消毒剂以及抗生素的使用,这些化学物品的使用可以快速减少机体微生物群落的多样性;越来越多的研究证据表明机体内在生态系统发生的改变和多种疾病发病存在强关联,尤其是在上半个世纪人类疾病的发生频率骤增。

  最后研究人员表示,如今我们所面对的挑战就是如何有效合理地调节管理机体内在的生态系统,以便未来人们可以在临床医生们的帮助下检查机体的微生物菌群的健康。(来源:生物谷)

Ecology and Evolution of the Human Microbiota: Fire, Farming and Antibiotics

Michael R. Gillings , Ian T. Paulsen and Sasha G.Tetu

Human activities significantly affect all ecosystems on the planet, including the assemblages that comprise our own microbiota. Over the last five million years, various evolutionary and ecological drivers have altered the composition of the human microbiota, including the use of fire, the invention of agriculture, and the increasing availability of processed foods after the Industrial Revolution. However, no factor has had a faster or more direct effect than antimicrobial agents. Biocides, disinfectants and antibiotics select for individual cells that carry resistance genes, immediately reducing both overall microbial diversity and within-species genetic diversity. Treated individuals may never recover their original diversity, and repeated treatments lead to a series of genetic bottlenecks. The sequential introduction of diverse antimicrobial agents has selected for increasingly complex DNA elements that carry multiple resistance genes, and has fostered their spread through the human microbiota. Practices that interfere with microbial colonization, such as sanitation, Caesarian births and bottle-feeding, exacerbate the effects of antimicrobials, generating species-poor and less resilient microbial assemblages in the developed world. More and more evidence is accumulating that these perturbations to our internal ecosystems lie at the heart of many diseases whose frequency has shown a dramatic increase over the last half century.

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